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江南

明月别枝惊鹊,清风半夜鸣蝉。

 
 
 

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Eighteen Capitals of China /中国十八省府  

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Eighteen Capitals of China /中国十八省府

中国十八个省府/国家清史编纂委员会编译丛刊(国家清史编纂委员会编译丛刊)

Eighteen Capitals of China /中国十八省府 - 江南 - 江南 Eighteen Capitals of China /中国十八省府 - 江南 - 江南

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2008-8-31 15:35

作者简介

威廉·埃德加·盖洛(William Edgar Geil),20世纪初美国著名的旅行家、英国皇家地理学会会员,1865年出生于美国宾夕法尼亚州的多伊尔斯顿城。盖洛受过严格系统的地理学专业训练,对中国的历史文化抱有浓厚的兴趣。1903年他首次来到中国,写下了《扬子江上的美国人》(1903)一书,受到西方读者的欢迎。此后,他又数次来中国考察,走遍了大江南北、长城内外、三山五岳,连续出版了《中国长城》(1909)、《中国十八省府》(1911)和《中国五岳》(1926)等一系列著作。

目录

第一部分 南方的省府

 第一章 杭州

  一、水道与方志

  二、假如孔子来到杭州

  三、杭州城

  四、巡抚

  五、御街

 第二章 福州

  一、到达与寻访

  二、诗歌和通俗散文

  三、药府

 第三章 广州

  一、羊城

  二、“古老的羊肠小道”

  三、国家传记辞典

  四、旧中国的消逝

  五、新广州

 第四章 桂林

  一、溯秀丽的桂江而上

  二、这座城市的故事

  三、桂林唯一的外国人坟墓

 第五章 贵阳

  一、桂林至贵阳,从肉桂林到鬼魂之地

  二、牌坊:为死人招魂的门楼

  三、鬼魂之地及其首府

  四、当地的方志和神话

  五、探访苗寨

 第六章 云南府

  一、海拔最高的省府

  二、往事如烟:《昆明县志》

第二部分 扬子江流域的省府

 第一章 苏州

  一、“苏”指什么

  二、坐船游苏州

  三、一部苏州的小说

 第二章 南京

  一、南方的京师

  二、新南京

 第三章 安庆

  一、环绕城墙的散步

  二、珍奇的安庆宝塔

  三、地方志

 第四章 南昌

  一、湖泊与淑女

  二、陶瓷、天师和其它产品

  三、朝南开的城门

  四、百科全书中的胡言乱语

 第五章 武昌

  一、三城三山

  二、武运昌盛之城

  三、新式教育

 第六章 长沙

  一、一个高地省份

  二、处女城

  三、圣山

  四、进入禁地

 第七章 成都

  一、政治家和军事家诸葛亮

  二、中国最伟大的诗人李太白

  三、伟大的水利专家李冰

  四、物产

  五、宗教的兴衰

第三部分 黄河流域的省府

 第一章 兰州

  一、锅柄状的省份

  二、兰州八景

  三、过去、现在与将来

 第二章 西安

  一、城市的现状

  二、城市的过去

  三、西安地方志

 第三章 开封

  一、到达开封:日记选段

  二、破落的城市

  三、开封文献

 第四章 太原府

  一、在狼乡

  二、城市与市民

 第五章 济南

  一、前往省府的道路

  二、医学、博物馆和人

  三、新城市、新人民

  四、典籍之乡的文献

 第六章 北京:首善之地

  一、从宝珠洞看北京

  二、地方志中的北京

  三、从城墙上看北京

  四、夜幕下的北京

  五、从天坛看北京

  六、彩虹下的北京

双语中国谚语

英汉词汇对照表

编译丛刊出版书目

 

以下英文原文:

 

Chung Hwa, translated " Central Glory," is the Chinese name for China.

 

FOREWORD

THE Appetite Grows with Feeding. On one prev-
ious journey we ascended the Yangtze, crossed the
water-shed, and came out in Burma; on another we tra-
versed the Great Wall from end to end. These two trips,
unique in this generation, inspired us to a third, when
we should systematically visit each of the Eighteen
Capitals, and get a first-hand glimpse at every part of
this " Central Glory." Others know well and closely
one province or two or even three; no one else has set
himself to glance at all.

For many moons yet it is unlikely that others will
tread the same track, so we have not written a guide-
book. But we have attempted to give an impressionist
sketch of present conditions, noting the flux at this
critical time. And we have sought so to do this that the
book may have permanent value as recording the condi-
tions at one year in a decade of unexampled change, and
so being worthy to take its place alongside our other
studies of China, in the great libraries of the world.

In two respects, besides the mere extent of the
journey, we put out special claims to attention,
politics and literature.

To read the minds of Chinese statesmen we have no
pretension; the wisest of European diplomats often
finds himself baffled by the imperturbable mask. But
facts speak, and we have seen many facts, new facts,
portentious facts. China has for ages studied the arts
of peace, and has looked down on mere fighters. What-
ever her opinon of them intrinsically may be, she has
bowed to Western opinion, and has created fighters
wholesale. The new educational system includes many
military academies, West Points and Sandhursts. Bar-

iz

 

x FOREWORD

racks have risen at every great city; soldiers fill them
as fast as they rise. No more bows and arrows, no
more somersaults and yells, but systematic European
drill with European weapons of precision. No white
man may cross the threshold of these barracks ; soldiers
are not encouraged to frequent white society ; there is an
armed neutrality. Arsenals are in evidence at every
great centre; cannons and all other munitions of war
are being made within the empire. This is not the case
at one town merely or at two, but at every capital,
and we deal here only with capitals, where the pulse of
the nation is easily felt. The whole empire seems to be
arming, not in extraordinary haste, but with thorough-
ness, with doggedness; and with resources wherewith
no one European nation can compare. The fact stands ;
let who will interpret it.

Then as to literature. When Constantinople's
scholars fled west and took with them their Greek learn-
ing, after a few years the time-honoured Latin text-
books at the universities were thrown out as waste paper.
That hour is now striking in China. The classics on
which the intellect of the nation has been trained for two
thousand years, together with the ephemeral novels and
magical dream-books read by the masses, are alike
doomed. Western learning for the one, and Western
rubbish for the other, are alike displacing the older
books. In a few years these will hardly be obtainable,
for official destruction has begun. With the aid of
viceroys, governors, Hanlin scholars, librarians, book-
sellers, we have gathered a large collection, out of which
selections by leading scholars have been translated, and
a few specimens are given, to let the reader see the old
style of book. Local proverbs in themselves have never
been brought together on our scale ; and to choose from
a mass of new material which would fill three volumes
has been a difficult task.

 

FOREWORD xi

Mere travel chapters have not been written. No
arbitrary length has been adopted; if one place pre-
sented specially interesting features and another seemed
more ordinary, the chapters reflect that in their size.
Twelve hundred photographs have enabled a careful
choice to be made, and the illustrations are left to speak
for themselves, without a superfluous descripton in the
text. To style we do not make pretension, but we do
confidently offer these pictures, this selection of a van-
ishing literature, this description of the eighteen vital
points in the new China, to those who would get an
instantaneous view of her as she is poised between the
past and the future.

DOYLESTOWN, PENNSYLVANIA,
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,
August 1, A. D. 1911.

 

CONTENTS

PAOB

INTRODUCTION. By W. A. P. Martin, D.D., L.L.D vii

FOREWORD ix

-<C^FHE SOUTHERN CAPITALS

tf. HANGCHOW . j 1

\. Channels and Annals 1

Tf Confucius came to Hang 15

Hang: The City 23

The Governor 32

The Great Street 37

II. FOOCHOW 49

Arrival and Exploration 49

Poetry and Popular Prose 65

Medical Foo 71

I. CANTON 7 78

The City of the Goat 78

"Ancient Foot Tracks" 84

Dictionary of National Biography 89

The Passing of Old China 93

New Canton 99

IV. KWEILIN 103

The Ascent of the Beautiful Cassia River 103

The Story of the City 112

The Only Foreign Grave at Kweilin 124

V. KWEIYANG 126

Kweilin to Kweichow, from the Cassia Forest to the

Land of Devils 126

Paifangs: Portals of Posthumous Popularity 134

The Land of Devils and its Capital 138

Local Literature and Fairy Tales 142

Excursion to see the Miao 143

xiii

 

xiv CONTENTS

VI. YtJNNANFtJ 147

The Loftiest Capital 147

The Fast Fleeting Past: "Brother Bright" Annals. ... 151

THE YANGTZE CAPITALS

VII. SOOCHOW 158

What is Soo? 158

Soo By Boat 166

A SJK> Novel 178

VIII. (NANKIN^ 191

The Southern Capital 191

s "The New Nanking 199

IX. ANKING 203

A Walk Round the Wall 203

The Precious Tower of Anking 215

Local Annals 220

X. NANCHANG 229

Lake and Ladies 229

Porcelain, Pope, and other Products 233

Gates to the South 238

Cyclopaedic Nonsense 243

XI. WUCHANG 248

Three Cities: Three Hills 248

The City of Military Splendour 251

The New Education 261

XII. CHANGSHA 266

A Highland Province 266

The Virgin City 271

The Holy Hill .' 274

Entering the Forbidden City 281

XIII. CHENGTU 285

Chu-ko Liang: Statesman-warrior 285

Li T'ai Po: Greatest of Celestial Poets 288

Li Ping: The Great Irrigator 292

Products 299

The Fall and Rise of Religion 306

 

CONTENTS xv

THE YELLOW CAPITALS

XIV. LANCHOW 312

The Panhandle Province 312

The Eight Sceneries of Lan 316

'ast, Present, and Future 321

 


XW SIAN/ 329

yAs it is 329

V- -^ As it was 336

Annals of Sian. . . 343

 

XV1/KAIFEN& 350

V Getting There: Extract from Diary 350

The Tumble-Down Town 354

Kaifeng Literature 363

XVII. TAIYUANFU . 370

In the Land of Wolves 370

City and Citizens 378

XVIII. TSINAN 386

Leading up to the Capital 386

Medicine, Museum, and Men 390

New City, New People 394

Literature: In the Home of Literature. . . 396

 

XIX. PEKING! CAPITAL OP CAPITALS 404

>~PeKing from Pearl Grotto 404

Peking in the Annals 408

Peking from the Wall 415

Peking at Night 417

Peking from the Altar of Heaven .419

Peking under a Rainbow 421

INDEX.. . 425

 

ILLUSTRATIONS

 

The beautiful Big South Bridge, remote Kweiyang ....... Frontispiece

Chung Hwa, translated "Central Glory," is the Chinese name for China viii

Map of Wu-Han ................................................. 2

Hangchow; "Boat Region," or possibly, "City of The Sail" ........... 3

Feng Hill Gate and "Night Basket," Hangchow ..................... 38

Making a Horn Lantern Globe on Great Street, Hangchow ............ 40

Beautiful Vertical Signs on Great Street, Hangchow .................. 40

Ancient Sundial in the yard of the Moslem Mosque, Hangchow .......... 42

"Burning Paper Altar," Lin Yin Monastery, Hangchow ............... 42

Yiian-the-patriot; sometimes spoken of as Yuan Ch'ang-the-Martyr .... 44

Great Peace Bridge, Hangchow .................................... 44

The ancient Pagoda of the Classics, Lin Yin Monastery, Hangchow ---- 46

The beautiful Monk's Rest Bridge, Lin Yin Monastery, Hangchow ..... 48

Foochow; "Happy Region" ........................................ 51

Dog Worshippers from the mountains near Foochow ................ 58

Head-dress of a Dog- worshipping Aboriginal ......................... 58

The White Pagoda, Foochow ...................................... 62

Foochow Field Woman ............................................ 64

North Tower, Foochow ........................................ . . 64

"Paper Burn" on Fairy Peach Place, Black Rock Hill, Foochow ...... 66

A Foochow Ceiling ............................................... 66

On Kite Hill, Foochow ............................................ 69

Putting up the Good Luck Characters .............................. 69

Tombstone of First Foreigner murdered in Foochow. Dr. Ohlinger,

the oldest missionary in the City .............................. 76

First M. E. Church built in Asia. On Great Street (suburb), Foochow. . 76

The Sea Guard Tower ............................................ 78

Kwangchow means " Broad District" .............................. 79

View from the "Five-Story House," Canton ......................... 80

A Canton Canal .................................................. 82

Scene in Canton .................................................. 82

Canton, from "The Ancient History of the City of Goats" ............ 84

Flushed Cloud Fairy Cave ........................................ 86

Lines on Likeness of Wang Yang Ming. (Rubbing taken from an engraved

stone.) .................................................. 88

Kweilin means " A Forest of Cassia " ............................... 105

Aboriginal Women snapped at Wan Tien, Kwangsi ................... 108

Below Yangseh, Cassia River, Kwangsi, enroute Wuchow to Kweilin. . . . 110

Pinglo on the Cassia River, Kwangsi ................................ 112

The Modern Prison School at Kweilin .............................. 114

The Great Middle School, Kweilin in remote Kwangsi ................ 116

The new Hall for the Provincial Assembly at Kweilin. Ruins of the

"Imperial City" are still standing. Gold and Purple Good Luck

Rock, in the background ........... ........................... 118

xvii

 

xviii ILLUSTRATIONS

PAG*

An Historic Room at Kweilin. Here convened the first Provincial

Assembly in the Province of Kwangsi 118

Portrait of Chang Min-chi, aggressive Governor of Kwangsi 120

The City of Kweilin from the Kweishan Pavilion where the Governor

and distinguished scholars gave a banquet in honour of the author . . 122

The famous Pagoda church, French Catholic, at Kweiyang 126

Blue Miao Women, with bare knees, wearing kilts. Near Kweiyang .... 126

Kweiyang, Capital of Kweichow 128

Kweiyang can be translated "South of the Kwei Mountains" 129

Big Flowery Miao Man and Wife, Anshun, Kweichow 130

Big Flowery Miao C. I. M. Bible Class, Weilingchow 180

First hospital erected in Kweichow. Also the first ever built for the Miao 132

Flowery Miao Women in gala garments at Lanha Tien 132

Big Flowery Miao Band that serenaded the Author on New Year's Day

at Anshun, Kweichow 134

Ploughing flooded rice field outside Kweiyang 134

Stone Honorary Portals northeast of Anshun, Kweichow 136

Pailo outside the Hong Pien Men, Kweiyang 138

H. E. Pang Hong Shu, distinguished Governor of Kweichow 142

Map of Yunnanfu, highest Capital in the Central Glory 148

"Yunnan" signifies "South of the Yun Mountains." "Yun" means

Cloud or Cloudy " 149

Parrot's Beak Mountain 150

On the Road from Chowtung to Yunnanfu 150

The Golden Temple northeast of the City of Yunnanfu, built by Cheng

Yong-ping in the Ming Dynasty 152

Hiahsen-tung is in the northwestern part of the City of Yunnanfu. Built

in 1779 by gentry and a priest called U-Hong 154

Entrance to the Wu Shan Gorge, Yangtze 158

Soochow means "The Soo District." "Soo" signifies to revive an old

state 159

Soochow, Gubernatorial Capital of Kiangsu 160

Fish Pond in the "Life Saving Garden," Soochow 164

The Old South Gate Pagoda, Soochow, Kiangsu, China 164

Fan Chung Yen (Father) 166

Peach Blossom Canal, looking toward Fragrant Flower Bridge, Soochow

Venice of China 168

T'si Men Canal, looking north, Soochow Beautiful Soo. 168

Main Building, Soochow University 170

"The Custom's Bridge," Soochow 170

Soo's South (Water) Gate 174

The Great Pagoda from near the Execution Grounds 174

Twin Pen Pagodas, nearly 1000 years old, near the Examination Hall,

Soochow 176

The Ink Pagoda, 120 feet high, near the East Wall, inside inner moat,

Soochow 176

South Horse Road Bridge, over the T'si Men Canal, Soochow 178

Soochow Examination Halls adjoining the Twin Pen Pagodas 178

 

ILLUSTRATIONS xix

FAGB

Nanking 192

Kiangning means "The River's Peace." This is the official name of

Nanking, which is translated "The Southern Capital " 193

Map of Northeast Kiangsi 194

Tuan Fang, the progressive Viceroy, caged the Ming Tomb Elephants

to prevent foreigners chipping off mementoes. Nanking 200

Kiangsi Vase 200

Buddhist Stone on the Execution Ground, outside the North Gate, Anking 204

Famous Medicine Stone at the East Gate of Anking 204

Anking means "Peace and Happiness" or "Peaceful Congratulations" 205

Anking-on-the- Yangtze, Capital of Anhwei 206

The Old Mint of Anking, now a gun works and electric plant 226

Nanchang means "Splendour of the South " 231

Chang Tien Si, The Taoist Pope 236

The Home Bible Seminary taking lessons in botany, Nanchang 240

The Great Nanchang Pagoda near the C. I. M. A Lucky Spot 240

Old Examination Cells at Nanchang 242

Wuchang; " Military Splendour " 249

Musical Instruments used by the blind fortune tellers of Wuchang 255

Changsha, Capital of Hunan 266

Changsha means ' ' Long Sand " 267

A famous Cannon on the wall of Changsha called "The Red-haired

Great General " 268

A Beggar who rolls through the streets of Changsha 268

Dr. Geil, Gov. Ts'en (in the centre), and distinguished officials who

accompanied the Governor when he called on the Author at Changsha 272
Yang Hsi Shao, brilliant scholar and second convert of the C. I. M. in

Changsha 274

On the River at Changsha 274

The son of Li, who at six years of age, could repeat the Sermon on the

Mount without a mistake 276

On the Tung Ting Lake 276

A Chinese deed 282

Ulcer patient at Dr. Keller's Hospital, Changsha 282

Chengtu, Capital of Szechwan 286

Chengtu might be translated "A Perfect Capital " 287

Shrine built by Old Ladies at the South-Gate-Bridge, over one of Liping's

Canals, at Kwanhsien 296

Salt Wells at Tzeling, Szechwan 300

Hall of the Provincial Assembly of Szechwan at Chengtu 306

Lanchow, Capital of Kansu 312

Lanchow, signifying "The District of the Lan Hwa." The "Lan" is

the Aglaia Odorata, the most fragrant flower in China 313

Tibetan Prayer Wheel, southwest of Lanchow, near Jaochow 318

Among the "Eight Sceneries of Lan" is the Wo Cantilever Bridge, a

footbridge over a small stream flowing to the Yellow River just

west of Lanchow. . , . 318

 

xx ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE

Sian, Capital of Shensi 330

Sian signifies " Western Repose " 331

There are beautiful Private Parks in the Ancient Capital Sianfu 333

The famous "Big Tower," nine li south of Sianfu 334

School children, of the Scandinavian Alliance Mission, taking a boat

ride. Outside the South Gate of Sianfu 350

Map of Kaifeng, Capital of Honan 350

Kaifeng means "Opening of the Seals " 351

A Family of Yellow Jews at Kaifengfu 362

"Summer Rest" of the Ts'eng Brothers' Memorial, Kaifengfu 366

Honan Hall of Assembly, Kaifengfu 360

Taiyuan may be translated "Great Plain " 371

Tsinan, Capital of Shantung 386

Tsinan means "South of the Tsi River." "Tsi" meaning "succor" or

"relieve " 387

Hedgehog eating Chinese musk-melon 388

The Moon. From an Ancient Tablet at Tsinan 389

The new Public Library in Tsinan 392

Oldest Native Christian in Shantung, a Presbyterian. Tsinan 392

Peking, Imperial Capital of China. . , 404

King Shi, the official title of Peking 405

Peking means " Northern Capital " 407

Son of Peace Street, Peking 416

Outer Gate Tower, Ping Tzu Men, Peking 416

View of the new Peking Water Works from the East Wall 420

 

VISIT SOOCUOW AND HANOCHOW ; THE NEXT PLACE IS HEAVES

 

EIGHTEEN CAPITALS
OF CHINA

THE SOUTHERN CAPITALS

I
HANGCHOW

PART I. CHANNELS AND ANNALS

ON the east coast of Cathay, in the latitude of New
Orleans, is a wide estuary which rapidly narrows and
turns southward. With every high tide a wave sweeps
in from the Pacific, sixty miles wide, contracts speedily
to ten miles, and piles itself up to a height of ten feet.
A sea wall, erected to prevent the land from being
flooded, changes and reflects it, so that behind the first
wall of water is a second, five to fifteen feet higher.
These two gigantic liquid ramparts speed up the estuary
at a rate of thirteen miles an hour, with a roar like that
of the rapids below Niagara. Pharaoh with all his
chariots would be hard put to it if he were out exercising
on the sands.

But as the channel bends and narrows and shallows,
the height lessens ; even at full moon, by 2 A.M., no more
than seven feet of water tower above the banks that
await it. They shelter opposite the walls of a great
city on the northwest bank, and by three o'clock the
sailors of Hangchow can take advantage of a swift ebb-
tide. But we will let the Bore strand us here, and spend

i

 

2 CHANNELS AND ANNALS

some time investigating the million people who dwell
at the head of this firth.

Their ancestors have been here for an indefinite time,
during which the estuary must have changed shape
greatly, as geologists and topographers assure us, but
there is no record of anything before 326 A.D. Just
about the time when Constantine gathered several
Christian bishops with a view to patronising their relig-
ion and strengthening his empire, a Buddhist monk
from India founded a convent here, and its history
begins. But though many fishers may have settled
at the foot of the hills and plied their calling on these
strange waters, though more longshoremen may have
laid out their salt-pans on the shallows, though more
and more peasants must have tilled the rich soil
brought by the inland flood, nearly three centuries
passed before any one thought it worth while to erect
any walls within which the poor folk might feel secure.
It is now slightly more than thirteen hundred years
since Yang Su established the first city here, and ap-
parently by that time the rivers had assumed practically
their present course; and within a generation a fresh
race of men came by sea to trade, and the Buddhists had
to share propagandism with the Moslems.

The estuary then became the chief centre of foreign
commerce, though the Bore prevented Hangchow itself
from being the port. The fleets came only to Kanpu,
where an immense concourse of foreigners settled.
Here the Parsee could be seen, worshipping the Rising
Sun, or bowing at his fire-altar, or carrying a corpse
to the Tower of Silence; here the Jew intoned his law,
and rested on the Sabbath ; here the Christian, who had
come overland from Persia and had been known in the
land many a century, read his Syriac Bible or saw his
converts translating and printing in Chinese ; here, too,
the Moslem built his mosque, whence the muezzin

 


MAP OF Wu-HAN.
By I. H. Moser, of Hankow.

 

BEATEN IS AWAY IN THE SKY, BUT SOOCHOW AND HA.NOCHOW
ARK HERK BELOW

 

.**

?/L

 


llvl*

 

Hangchow; "Boat Region," or possibly, "City of The Sail.'

 

4 CHANNELS AND ANNALS

chanted five times daily the sonorous Arab call to
prayer.

The Chinese at Hangchow looked askance at this
peaceful invasion, and felt much as the Greeks at Con-
stantinople when they viewed the western barbarians
from Genoa or Venice who fortified a point across the
Golden Horn, or much as the Londoner when he finds
a square mile in the East End where churches are
turned into synagogues and the notices are all in
Hebrew. Hangchow was also rich and large, and the
time came when a reasonable cause of quarrel was
found. The foreign mart was sacked, and 20,000
foreigners whose names were down on the list of alien
tax-payers were said to have been destroyed. Hang-
chow killed the goose that laid the golden eggs; the
trade went to Canton and gave that district its com-
mercial start. But Hangchow managed to thrive well
by picking the goose's bones, and a few years later, as
our ninth century was drawing to an end, the prince
of the district fixed on this as his capital, and put up a
new set of walls, double the length of the former, mak-
ing the circuit some twenty-seven miles.

His successor set himself to deal with the Bore, and
we have a vivid account of his difficulties and his skill.
" Encountering day and night the violent assaults of
the tide, he could never succeed in joining the two parts
of his work. Then the prince ordered several hundred
crossbowmen to shoot their bolts in order to slay the
spirit of the tide, while he caused prayers to be offered
on the hill. Thereupon the tide retired in shame, when
the prince hastened to make bamboo baskets, which he
filled with stones and anchored with huge piles. The
dyke thus ended, he waited awhile before proceeding
to build the fortifications." What is now a level
plain was previously washed by the river. Good for
the Chinese Canute! But the account leads us to think

 

TO BE BORN IN YANGCHOW, TO HAVE STUDIED TN 8OOOHOW, AND
TO DIB IN HANOCHOW

there is a little confusion as to which prince built the
city walls. The third of this line was an ardent Buddh-
ist, and in front of the Convent of the Heaven of
Brahma, outside the present South Gate, in the year 966
A.D. he erected two elegant petticoated polygonal pil-
lars, still to be seen.

These were the palmy days of Hangchow. One
governor in the next century was equally famous for
his poetry and his picnics. Whenever Su Tung-p'o
could spare a holiday, he would gather a fleet of pleas-
ure barges on the artificial lake west of the city.
After early breakfast a captain was chosen for each
craft, and there was great rivalry who could arrange
the happiest day for his guests, with chorus and ballet-
girls. As afternoon faded, a gong summoned all to
some lake-side hotel, where they feasted again; then,
before the market closed and the gates were shut, the
whole joyous company rode home by torch-light, to the
amusement of the citizens as they watched the " return
of the thousand riders." Many anecdotes are told of
this Louis the Fourteenth with his mistress, his dirge for
the geese that had to be slain for the revellers, and
his plea that they should be saved as they formed good
watch-dogs quite an Irish reminiscence of a Roman
bull!

A great change took place when the Sung Dynasty
was driven southward by the Mongol invaders. The

Great Wall, whose builder in B.C. is said to have

moored his boat to a huge rock here, had failed to keep
out the desert tribes, and the northern hosts poured into
the land. The retreating Emperor pitched his camp
here about 1130 A.D., and presently decided to make this
the new imperial capital. He built new and massive
fortifications extending right to the river, enclosing all

 

6

the existing suburbs and affording ample space for
a magnificent palace with parks. The walls at this
time are said to have been nearly forty miles round;
indeed, a European traveller said one hundred miles,
but he probably meant one hundred li. We are not
accustomed to walled cities, but it may be remembered
that if a wall were to be put round Melbourne in
Australia, with its ports and its parks embosomed in the
midst, it would need to be fully forty miles long; and
the fortifications around Paris are on a similar vast
scale.

Under these conditions, the city became a Babylon
or a Corinth, a place of vast wealth, expenditure, luxury,
and vice. We hear of it from Arabs and Persians, as
well as from an Italian, Marco Polo, who left a glow-
ing account of it as the noblest and best city in the
world. He tells of the great Rotten Row, Route du
Roi, some three miles long, the centre, twenty feet
wide, gravelled over the rain-water drains, and a ten-
foot paved road on either hand. Along the street
rolled numerous covered carriages holding six people.
This feature alone convinced him of the superiority to
Europe: " Inside the city there is a lake some thirty
miles around j 1 and all about it are built beautiful palaces
and mansions, belonging to the city nobles, of the richest
and most exquisite structure imaginable. On its shores
are also many abbeys and churches of the idolaters. In
the lake are two islands, on either of which stands a rich,
spacious, and beautiful edifice, furnished as would
become an emperor's palace, and if a citizen would cele-
brate a wedding breakfast or give an entertainment, it
used to be done at one of these palatial hotels." At
this time the Chinese Christians had a church here, and
when the Mongols at last ousted the Sungs, Chinese

1 It was not even thirty II.

 

 

…………………………………………………………

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